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Outcome Based Education
Outcome-based education or outcomes-based education (OBE) is an educational theory that bases each part of an educational system around goals (outcomes). By the end of the educational experience, each student should have achieved the goal. There is no single specified style of teaching or assessment in OBE; instead, classes, opportunities, and assessments should all help students achieve the specified outcomes. The role of the faculty adapts into instructor, trainer, facilitator, and/or mentor based on the outcomes targeted.
OBE is an educational theory that bases each part of an educational system around goals (outcomes). By the end of the educational experience, each student should have achieved the goal. There is no single specified style of teaching or assessment in OBE; instead, classes, opportunities, and assessments should all help students achieve the specified outcomes. The role of the faculty adapts into instructor, trainer, facilitator, and/or mentor based on the outcomes targeted.
The fundamental premise underlying the learning outcomes-based approach to curriculum
planning and development is that higher education qualification such as B.Tech/M.Tech/MBA etc (Any Specilization Degree) are awarded on the basis of demonstrated achievement of outcomes (in
terms of knowledge, understanding skills, attitudes and values) and academic qualities
expected from a graduate of professional programme such as B.Tech/M.Tech/MBA. The learning outcomes specify what exactly graduates after successfully completing Mass communication & Journalism degree programme of study are expected to know, understand and able to practice on the professional level.
The expected learning outcomes are very important in present day context, as it is generally observed that graduates of professional programmes such as Mass communication & Journalism are mostly not employable in view of R & D Industry. Therefore, higher education degrees must formulate Graduate Attributes (GAs), qualification descriptors, learning outcomes and course learning outcomes which will help in curriculum planning and development in the form of design and delivery. The overall formulation of the professional degree programme must equip learner to have competencies to provide deliverables to the human capital hungry industry.
Choice Based Credit System
The CBCS provides an opportunity for the students to choose courses from the prescribed courses comprising core, elective/minor or skill based courses. The courses can be evaluated following the grading system, which is considered to be better than the conventional marks system. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce uniform grading system in the entire higher education in India. This will benefit the students to move across institutions within India to begin with and across countries. The uniform grading system will also enable potential employers in assessing the performance of the candidates. In order to bring uniformity in evaluation system and computation of the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) based on student’s performance in examinations.
Course Learning Outcomes are statements clearly describing the meaningful, observable and measurable knowledge, skills and/or dispositions students will learn in this course. This also clearly identify what (and how much or how well) the student will know and be able to do after successfully completing this course – the essential knowledge, abilities, and attitudes that constitute the basic learning needed by a graduate of this course.
Objective — A course objective describes what a faculty member will cover in a course. They are generally less broader than desirable goals and more broader than student learning outcomes.
Outcome — A detailed description of what a student must be able to do at the conclusion of a course.
We generally map the objective to the outcomes to analyse and document their attainment. An objective is more like a plan, or a road map to reach/attain the outcomes.
POs are statements about the knowledge, skills and attitudes (attributes) the graduate of a formal engineering program should have. POs deal with the general aspect of graduation for a particular program, and the competencies and expertise a graduate will possess after completion of the program.
These are broad and covers a wider area than of COs. the NBA has set 12 Program Outcomes, or Graduate Attributes for the sake of unity and quality assurance. We’ll discuss each of them here. The Program Outcomes set by the institution must reflect on these.
The program outcomes are specific enough to explain how those broad expectations are accomplished within a given program, and course outcomes will specify what expectations an instructor has for the course, which are related to one or more program outcomes.
Program educational objectives are the broad statements that describe the career and professional accomplishments that the program is preparing graduates to achieve. Student outcomes are statements that describe what students are expected to know or be able to do by the time they complete an academic program.
Program Specific Outcomes (PSOs)
These are what the students should be able to do at the time of graduation. The PSOs are program specific. PSOs are written by the department offering the program. There usually are two to four PSOs for a department.
Program Specific Outcomes (PSOs) are decided by the head of the institution with the help of HoDs and department experts.
The assessments should be in alignment with the COs Question paper should be so set to assess all COs
The average marks obtained in assessments against items for each CO will indicate the CO attainment Instructors can set targets for each CO of his/her course
Attainment gaps can therefore be identified
Instructor can plan to reduce the attainment gaps or enhance attainment targets enhance attainment targets
If the assessment is in alignment with COs, the performance of the students indicates the CO attainment
All POs can be adequately addressed through the selection of core courses and their COs. These measurements provide the basis for continuous improvement in the quality of learning, which the NBA ultimately aims.